By Subrata Mukherjee
In love with Golapi, Subratagolapi
Forensic science is also known as Criminalistics. It is the application of science during the criminal investigation in and when required for the detection of crimes or offences and the identification of the offending materials to be adduced as evidence during the examination or the trial of the judicial process.
Forensic science approves the scientific methods and measures to collect, preserve and scientific evidence during the course of an investigation.The New World (Natun Prithibi)
Forensic science consist of two words of Latin origin, one is ‘forensis’ and the other is ‘science’.
This is science is to be made in process with the presentation of evidences before the forum for the final examination and adjudication.
The history of this forensic science originates from the Roman times in past when the report of the criminal investigation and subsequent charge had to be present with the relevant case before a group of individuals in the forum constructed for the determination, identification and adjudication of the case of the criminal trial.
Sir William Herschel was one of the first to support the use of Finger Printing in the identification of criminal suspects and offenders.
In many of its practical applications and utilisations of the forensic science the use of “Finger Printing” became very popular among the detective agencies and identifiers of the crimes in the society including the police and secret authorities.
He also developed the idea and use of Finger Printing in the Indian Civil Service and introduced the use of thumb prints on documents as a security measure to prevent forgery of documents in 1858.
In 1897 a Finger Print Bureau was established in Calcutta under the expertise and experience of Azizul Haque and Hemchandra Bose and they developed a Finger Print classification system after the name of Sir Edward Richard Henry called The Henry Classification System.
The forensic science finds and approves the existence of an individuality in every object, natural and man made.
This idea of forensic science is in contrary to the general belief that born out of same groups of materials or same species or same classes or of same conditions and processing the objects natural or man made have no separate identity or individuality.
The forensic science has proved that the objects or creatures even made, born or originated out of the same materials, conditions, species, genus, groups have specific identity and individuality and that indentification of individuality can not be duplicated or found on other things or elements or species even the look same or appear identical.
So, this forensic science is of vast importance and it’s application has already been established in the modern methods of criminal investigation and subsequent indentification.
Forensic science covers and includes all the branches of natural and applied sciences namely, Biological sciences, Chemistry, Medical sciences, physics, mathematics, sciences of surgery.
The Subject of Forensic science makes the Courts of Law in any country strong and flawless.
The Forensic experts namely Medical experts, Pathological experts, Chemical examiners, Public Analysts, Fingerprint experts, Inspector of explosives, Ballistic or Fire Arms experts play important roles in the administration of justice with the help of their knowledge and expertise in the fields of forensic science.
Forensic science helps in the performance and examination of post mortem of dead bodies, rape cases, murders, culpable homicides, death with poisons and the matters of Toxicology.
Forensic science reveals the mystery of the ages of natural and man made objects, stones etc and their sources.
Forensic science helps in conducting chemical, physiological and pharmaceutical examinations.
Subsequent study and developments continued in the forensic science giving new ideas and inventions to establish its concept as all accepted in the world of criminal investigation and examination.
Two great applications later developed, one was Uhlenhuth test or the antigen antibody precipitin test introduced by Paul Uhlenhuth in 1901 to distinguish the samples of human and animal blood and the other is Forensic DNA Analysis introduced by Sir Alec Jeffreys who made the use of test in a case of rape and murder of one 15 year girl named Lynda Mann .
Forensic science examines the nature and ages of natural and physical objects, human organs and other related subjects.The New World (Natun Prithibi)
…To be continued.
The New World (Natun Prithibi)